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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006 Apr;74(2):327-36.

Universal session-level change processes in an early session of psychotherapy: path models.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, Madison, WI 53719-1176, USA.


The authors used structural equation modeling to investigate universal change processes identified in the generic model of psychotherapy (GMP). Three path models of increasing complexity were examined in Study 1 in dynamic therapy. The best fitting model from Study 1 was replicated in Study 2 for participants receiving either cognitive or interpersonal therapy. Findings provided support for the universality of the GMP constructs in different types of therapy. Positive influences for therapeutic bond, openness, and realizations were observed, as was a surprising negative impact for one aspect of bond. Discussion highlights a complex conception of the therapy relationship that underscores the importance of investigating the multiple functions that the therapy relationship might serve in different psychotherapies.

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