Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Environ Toxicol. 2006 Jun;21(3):289-95.

Analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins in Aphanizomenon DC-1 from Lake Dianchi, China.

Author information

  • 1State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430072, People's Republic of China.


Lake Dianchi is in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. In recent years, significant cyanobacterial blooms have occurred in this lake nearly every year because of eutrophication. Monitoring data for the past 5 years acquired by our research group showed that phytoplankton composition alternated between species of Microcystis sp. during warm seasons and those of Aphanizomenon sp. during cool seasons. In March 2003, when phytoplankton composition was highly dominated by Aphanizomenon sp., samples were taken from the lake for toxin detection and immediate strain isolation. A mouse bioassay with extracts from the lyophilized field material showed obvious intoxication from paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), and all mice died within 30 min. Further analysis of both field and isolated algal strain Aphanizomenon DC-1 by the postcolumn HPLC-FLD method confirmed its PSP-producing ability. The analogues found in the extracts from the field material were neoSTX, dcSTX, and dcGTX3, with contents of 2.279, 1.135, and 0.547 ng/mg DW, respectively. Under laboratory culture condition, toxin content in the Aphanizomenon strain DC-1 varied greatly during different growth phases, with two peaks: in the early-exponential and late-stationary growth phases. When the culture grew at a relatively high rate during the mid- to late-exponential growth phase, toxin content declined gradually. Moreover, the types of toxin in the DC-1 strain varied greatly during a single culture cycle. The HPLC results showed that dcSTX was the only toxin isomer detected throughout the culture period, and its level remained stable. On the other hand, dcGTX2 and GTX4 were the major toxins during the early-exponential and stationary phases, respectively. This article presents the first data on the identification and detection of paralytic shellfish toxins from cyanobacteria in Lake Dianchi. As far as we know, this is also the first report of this type of toxin in inland water bodies in China. Our study indicates the threat associated with PSP toxins in Lake Dianchi and suggests that necessary measures and programs for control are urgently needed to prevent the spread of toxic cyanobacterial blooms.

Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk