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Parasitol Res. 2006 Sep;99(4):466-72. Epub 2006 Apr 27.

Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae).

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  • 1Omar Almukhtar University, P.O. Box 919, Elbieda, Libya. a_m_amer@yahoo.com


Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. In this study, the oils of 41 plants were evaluated for their effects against third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. At first, the oils were surveyed against A. aegypti using a 50-ppm solution. Thirteen oils from 41 plants (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum and sandalwood) induced 100% mortality after 24 h, or even after shorter periods. The best oils were tested against third-instar larvae of the three mosquito species in concentrations of 1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 ppm. The lethal concentration 50 values of these oils ranged between 1 and 101.3 ppm against A. aegypti, between 9.7 and 101.4 ppm for A. stephensi and between 1 and 50.2 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus.

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