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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 18;103(16):6326-31. Epub 2006 Apr 10.

Cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor and protease-activated receptor 1 activate strongly correlated early genes in human endothelial cells.

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  • 1Institute for Vascular Medicine aud Institute for Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences, and Documentation, Friedrich-Schiller University, Bachstrasse 18, 07743 Jena, Germany.


Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLT), i.e., LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, are lipid mediators derived from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, and the cysLT receptors cysLT1-R/cysLT2-R mediate inflammatory tissue reactions. Although endothelial cells (ECs) predominantly express cysLT2-Rs, their role in vascular biology remains to be fully understood. To delineate cysLT2-R actions, we stimulated human umbilical vein EC with LTD4 and determined early induced genes. We also compared LTD4 effects with those induced by thrombin that binds to protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1. Stringent filters yielded 37 cysLT2-R- and 34 PAR-1-up-regulated genes (>2.5-fold stimulation). Most LTD4-regulated genes were also induced by thrombin. Moreover, LTD4 plus thrombin augmented gene expression when compared with each agonist alone. Strongly induced genes were studied in detail: Early growth response (EGR) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A transcription factors; E-selectin; CXC ligand 2; IL-8; a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease (reprolysin type) with thrombospondin type 1 motif 1 (ADAMTS1); Down syndrome critical region gene 1 (DSCR1); tissue factor (TF); and cyclooxygenase 2. Transcripts peaked at approximately 60 min, were unaffected by a cysLT1-R antagonist, and were superinduced by cycloheximide. The EC phenotype was markedly altered: LTD4 induced de novo synthesis of EGR1 protein and EGR1 localized in the nucleus; LTD4 up-regulated IL-8 formation and secretion; and LTD4 raised TF protein and TF-dependent EC procoagulant activity. These data show that cysLT2-R activation results in a proinflammatory EC phenotype. Because LTD4 and thrombin are likely to be formed concomitantly in vivo, cysLT2-R and PAR-1 may cooperate to augment vascular injury.

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