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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 May-Jun;1761(5-6):522-34. Epub 2006 Mar 20.

Coordinated intracellular translocation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-delta with the cell cycle.

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  • 1Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Harima Science Garden City, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan.


The delta family phosphoinositide (PI)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) are most fundamental forms of eukaryotic PI-PLCs. Despite the presence of lipid targeting domains such as the PH domain and C2 domain, the isoforms are also found in the cytoplasm and nucleus as well as at the plasma membrane. The isoforms have sequences or regions that can serve as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES). Their intracellular localization differs from one isoform to another, presumably due to the difference in the transport equilibrium balanced by the strength of the two signals of each isoform. Even for a particular isoform, its intracellular localization seems to vary during the cell cycle. As an example, PLCdelta(1), which is generally found at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm of quiescent cells, localizes to discrete nuclear structures in the G(1)/S boundary of the cell cycle. This may be at least partly due to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+), since Ca(2+) facilitates the formation of a nuclear transport complex comprised of PLCdelta(1) and importin beta1, a carrier molecule for the nuclear import. PLCdelta(1) as well as PLCdelta(4) may play a pivotal role in controlling the initiation of DNA synthesis in S phase. Spatio-temporal changes in the levels of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) seem to be another major determinant for the localization and regulation of the delta isoforms. High nuclear PtdIns(4,5)P(2) levels are associated with the G(1)/S phases. After entering M phase, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) synthesis at sites of cell division occurs and PLCs seem to localize to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Coordinated translocation of PLCs with the cell cycle or with stress responses may result in changes in intra-nuclear environments and local membrane architectures that modulate proliferation and differentiation. In this review, recent findings regarding the molecular machineries and mechanisms of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling as well as roles in the cell cycle progression of the delta isoforms of PLC will be discussed.

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