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Toxicon. 2006 Apr;47(5):497-509. Epub 2006 Mar 24.

Influence of intracellular toxin concentrations on cylindrospermopsin bioaccumulation in a freshwater gastropod (Melanoides tuberculata).

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  • 1Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Environmental Management, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Qld 4702, Australia.


Scant information is available regarding the bioaccumulation of cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in aquatic organisms, particularly in invertebrates. This study examined toxin bioconcentration and bioaccumulation in the aquatic snail, Melanoides tuberculata, following exposure to freeze-thawed whole cell extracts and a live Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii culture containing CYN. Both bioconcentration and bioaccumulation were evident, but exposure to toxin in the freeze-thawed solutions resulted in minor tissue contamination compared with that resulting from live C. raciborskii exposure. Thus, whilst CYN uptake resulted from both extracellular and intracellular exposures, the availability of intracellular toxin was critical in affecting tissue CYN values. M. tuberculata did not bioconcentrate CYN into the shell. Bioaccumulation of the analog deoxy-CYN was also recorded. Knowledge of intracellular toxin concentrations may be critical in evaluating the bioaccumulation, ecological and human health risks associated with contaminated systems.

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