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J Athl Train. 1994 Jun;29(2):141-3.

Glucose emergencies: recognition and treatment.

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  • 1David E. Martin is Instructor of Emergency Medicine and Doctoral Student in Sports Medicine at University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903.


Millions of Americans have pathologies related to glucose regulation. Many of these individuals have diagnosed diabetes. There are, however, countless others who are unaware that they have glucose regulation disorders. Athletic trainers may find themselves called upon to work with individuals with documented and undocumented disorders. The purpose of this article is to define three primary glucose emergencies (diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic hyperosmolar state, and hypoglycemia) and discuss the treatment for each. Attention is focused on signs and symptoms which allow the athletic trainer to differentiate between the conditions.

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