Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jul;63(7):482-7. Epub 2006 Mar 21.

Cross shift changes in lung function among bar and restaurant workers before and after implementation of a smoking ban.

Author information

  • 1National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.



To study possible cross shift effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on pulmonary function among bar and restaurant employees before and after the implementation of a smoking ban in Norway.


The study included 93 subjects employed in 13 different establishments in Oslo. They were examined at the beginning and end of a workshift both while ETS exposure was present and when smoking was banned. The mean exposure level of nicotine and total dust before the ban was 28 microg/m3 (range 3-65) and 275 microg/m3 (range 81-506), respectively. Following the smoking ban, the mean level of nicotine and total dust was 0.6 mug/m3 and 77 microg/m3, respectively. Assessment of lung function included dynamic lung volumes and flows.


The cross shift reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) among 69 subjects participating in both examinations changed from 81 ml (SD 136) during exposure to ETS to 52 ml (SD 156) (p = 0.24) following the smoking ban. The reduction in forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) during a workshift, was borderline significantly reduced when comparing the situation before and after the intervention, by 89 ml (SD = 132) compared to 46 ml (SD = 152) (p = 0.09), respectively. The reduction in forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) changed significantly from 199 ml/s (SD = 372) to 64 ml/s (SD = 307) (p = 0.01). Among 26 non-smokers and 11 asthmatics, the reduction in FEV1 and FEF25-75% was significantly larger during ETS exposure compared to after the smoking ban. There was an association between the dust concentration and decrease in FEF25-75% before the ban among non-smokers (p = 0.048).


This first study of cross shift changes before and after the implementation of a smoking ban in restaurants and bars shows a larger cross shift decrease in lung function before compared with after the implementation of the ban.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk