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Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jun;286(1-2):33-42. Epub 2006 Mar 14.

Aspects of the regulatory mechanisms of PPAR functions: analysis of a bidirectional response element and regulation by sumoylation.

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  • 1Graduate School of Life Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan.

Erratum in

  • Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 May;299(1-2):1-3.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) constitute a subfamily of nuclear receptor superfamily. A wide variety of compounds including hypolipidemic agents, antidiabetic drugs, and long-chain fatty acids are the potential ligands of PPARs. To approach the regulatory mechanisms of PPARs, we studied on two subjects in this work. First, we identified a functional PPAR-binding site in the spacer region between the PEX11alpha and perilipin genes, which are arranged in tandem on the mouse genome. By gene reporter assays and in vivo as well as in vitro binding assays, we show that these genes are regulated tissue-selectively through this common binding site: The PEX11alpha gene is activated by PPARalpha in the liver, whereas the perilipin gene by PPARgamma in the adipose tissue. As the second subject, we found that PPARgamma2 is conjugated with small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) at a specific lysine residue in the amino-terminal region. By site-directed mutagenesis combined with gene reporter assays and sumoylation analyses, we show that sumoylation represses the ligand-independent transactivating function carried by this region, and hence negatively regulates the whole transactivating competence of PPARgamma2. In addition, phosphorylation at a specific site in the amino-terminal region represses the transactivation by PPARgamma2 possibly through enhancing sumoylation.

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