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J Pediatr (Rio J). 2006 Jan-Feb;82(1):51-7.

Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

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  • 1Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.



To determine the prevalence of pneumococcus colonization among HIV-infected outpatients aged 0 to 18 years. To determine the resistance to penicillin of the microorganisms observed, to identify their serotypes, and to determine whether there are associations between known risk factors and colonization in this group.


This was an observational and cross-sectional study in which nasopharynx swabs were collected from 112 children on the occasion of their monthly appointments and a questionnaire applied to the mothers. The material collected was processed at the microbiology laboratory of the hospital in accordance with National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) regulations and serotyping was performed at the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC). Data were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test and with univariate and multivariate analysis with multiple logistic regression.


The prevalence rate of nasopharyngeal colonization by pneumococci was 28.6%, with a 15.6% rate of resistance to penicillin (6.2% intermediate resistance and 9.4% full resistance). The serotypes identified were 6A, 6B, 7C, 9V, 11A, 13, 14, 15A, 16F, 18C, 19B, 19F, 23B, 23F, and 34. In this population there were no associations between pneumococcal colonization and the risk factors studied.


The prevalence of pneumococcal colonization among HIV-infected children at our service was not higher than prevalence rates observed in healthy children and reported in the literature.

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