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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Sep;291(3):H1216-25. Epub 2006 Mar 3.

Hemodynamic effects of acute and repeated exposure to raloxifene in ovariectomized sheep.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, P.O. Box 670526, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0526, USA.


We hypothesize that administration of acute and daily doses of raloxifene will have significant effects on ovine coronary and uterine hemodynamics and that these changes are estrogen receptor dependent. Eleven ovariectomized sheep were instrumented to measure mean arterial pressure, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and coronary (CBF) and uterine artery blood flows (UBF). A dose-response curve was generated for raloxifene (1, 3, and 10 microg/kg) and compared with a standard dose of estradiol-17beta (1 microg/kg) given intravenously. In a second group of animals, raloxifene (10 was administered intravenously for 14 consecutive days, and cardiovascular responses were compared with a group of animals administered estradiol-17beta (10 microg/kg) daily for the same period. To determine whether raloxifene-related vascular responses were estrogen receptor (ER) mediated, the animals were pretreated with estrogen antagonist ICI-182,780 given intravenously. Finally, RT-PCR was preformed to determine the presence of ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA in ovine coronary and uterine vessels. Raloxifene increased CBF and UBF dose dependently with a parallel decrease in the associated vascular resistances. Acute cardiovascular responses to daily doses of raloxifene and estradiol-17beta were sustainable. In contrast to estradiol-17beta, which significantly increases CO by increasing HR but not stroke volume, raloxifene significantly increased stroke volume without a significant parallel increase in HR. ICI-182,780 abolished raloxifene-induced hemodynamic responses, and ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA are present in both ovine coronary and uterine vessels. Hence, the hemodynamic effects of raloxifene are dose dependent, sustainable, and estrogen receptor mediated.

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