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BMC Nephrol. 2006 Mar 6;7:3.

Anemia and chronic kidney disease are associated with poor outcomes in heart failure patients.

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  • 1Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.



Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been linked to higher heart failure (HF) risk. Anemia is a common consequence of CKD, and recent evidence suggests that anemia is a risk factor for HF. The purpose of this study was to examine among patients with HF, the association between CKD, anemia and inhospital mortality and early readmission.


We performed a retrospective cohort study in two Swiss university hospitals. Subjects were selected based the presence of ICD-10 HF codes in 1999. We recorded demographic characteristics and risk factors for HF. CKD was defined as a serum creatinine > or = 124 956;mol/L for women and > or = 133 micromol/L for men. The main outcome measures were inhospital mortality and thirty-day readmissions.


Among 955 eligible patients hospitalized with heart failure, 23.0% had CKD. Twenty percent and 6.1% of individuals with and without CKD, respectively, died at the hospital (p < 0.0001). Overall, after adjustment for other patient factors, creatinine and hemoglobin were associated with an increased risk of death at the hospital, and hemoglobin was related to early readmission.


Both CKD and anemia are frequent among older patients with heart failure and are predictors of adverse outcomes, independent of other known risk factors for heart failure.

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