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Pediatrics. 2006 Mar;117(3):741-53.

Polysomnographic characteristics in normal preschool and early school-aged children.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this study was to describe overnight polysomnographic measures in normal children aged 3 to 7 years. We conducted a retrospective analysis of normal polysomnographic evaluations from participants in 2 large community-based studies of sleep-disordered breathing among preschoolers and early school-aged children at Kosair Children's Hospital Sleep Medicine Research Center at the University of Louisville. Participants included 542 healthy children with ages ranging from 3.2 to 8.6 years.

RESULTS:

Subjects were excluded from analysis if they had documented snoring during polysomnography, an obstructive apnea-hypopnea index of > or =1.0, or a periodic leg-movement index of > or =5.0. Because the greatest differences in polysomnography occurred between ages 5 and 6 years, analyses were performed for children 3 to 5 years and for ages > or =6. Sleep cyclicity was distinct between age groups, with both showing an initial brief rapid-eye-movement period, which lengthened across the night, but only the older group showing a decrease in cycle length across the night. Average obstructive apnea indices were 0.03 per hour of total sleep time (TST) for 3- to 5-year-old children and 0.05 per hour of TST for > or =6-year-old children, whereas central apnea indices were 0.82 and 0.45 per hour of TST, respectively. Older children spent a greater percentage of sleep time supine, and the apnea-hypopnea index differed according to body position. Twenty percent of all subjects had end tidal carbon dioxide values of >45 mm Hg, and 2.2% had recorded values >50 mm Hg during > or =50% TST. High variance was present on all measures.

CONCLUSIONS:

Developmental changes occur in several polysomnographic measures among normal children from 3 to 7 years of age, particularly during transition from preschool to early school age. Our findings in a large number of healthy community children comprise the most extensive compilation of normative reference values for laboratory-based pediatric polysomnography to date.

PMID:
16510654
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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