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Int J Nurs Stud. 2006 May;43(4):447-56. Epub 2006 Feb 28.

Reliability and validity of the Faces Pain Scale with older adults.

Author information

  • 1Department of Nursing, Daejeon University, 96-3, Yongun-dong, Dong-gu, Daejeon 300-716, Korea. ejkim@dju.ac.kr

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Faces Pain Scale (FPS) is effective with older adults in clinical assessment of pain intensity. The 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) has universally adapted for assessment of pain intensity. The commonly used versions of the FPS have six, seven or nine faces.

OBJECTIVES:

We proposed an 11 face modified version of the McGrath nine face FPS to compare with the 0-10 NRS without the mathematical translation. The psychometric properties of the proposed version were also investigated in a sample of Korean older adults.

DESIGN:

This study employed methodological research design.

SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS:

A sample of 31 older adults was recruited through local senior citizen centers to examine the construct validity and the test-retest reliability. For the concurrent validity testing, a sample of 85 older adults with chronic pain was recruited through a general hospital and an oriental medical hospital.

METHODS:

The construct validity was examined by determining if the subjects perceive the FPS as representing pain and they agree on the rank of each face. The test-retest reliability was examined at a 2-week interval. The concurrent validity was examined by using the NRS and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).

RESULTS:

Subjects perceived the 11 FPS as a pain measure, and the subjects' agreements in the rank ordering of the faces were almost perfect (Kendall's W = .93, p < .001). Cohen's kappa of .61 (p < .001) for test-retest reliability was acceptable in the cognitively intact subjects. Concurrent validity measured by the correlation between the FPS and the NRS (r = .73, p < .001) and the VAS (r = .73, p < .001) was supported.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results supported the appropriateness of the 11 FPS for use with the older adults in clinical practice to measure pain intensity. Additionally, this study provided cross-cultural evidence to evaluate usefulness of the FPS.

PMID:
16510146
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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