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Am J Emerg Med. 2006 Mar;24(2):206-13.

Ambulance diversion reduction: the Sacramento solution.

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  • 1Department of Emergency Medicine, The Permanente Medical Group, Sacramento, CA 95825, USA. pankaj.patel@kp.org



The diversion of ambulances away from their intended emergency departments (EDs) in the United States has become commonplace and may compromise patient care. Although ambulance diversion resulting from ED overcrowding has been well described in the literature, little is known about how to reduce the incidence of ambulance diversion on a regional level. We describe the development, implementation, and impact of a region-wide program to reduce ambulance diversion.


This study was undertaken in the greater Sacramento, California region from January 2001 to December 2003. This comprehensive ambulance diversion reduction program was implemented May 15, 2002, with analysis of data for this 3-year time frame. The data for this study were obtained from 17 hospitals with ambulance diversion hours being the main outcome measure for this study.


The greater Sacramento region had 23785 hours of ambulance diversion in 2001. In 2003, there were 7143 ambulance diversion hours. Comparing the 17-month period before implementation of this program with the 19-month period after implementation, the difference in the means of these two groups was -1428 hours per month (95% confidence interval, -1252 to -1597), a 74% decrease in ambulance diversion hours. Notably, this reduction occurred despite overall increases in ED census (6.5%), hospital admissions from the ED (8.8%), EMS arrivals to the ED (17.1%), inpatient hospital census (7.4%), and overall Sacramento population (5.7%).


Our results demonstrate a sizeable reduction of ambulance diversion in a large urban region after the successful implementation of a comprehensive ambulance diversion reduction program. The description of this effort may serve as a model for other regions across the country that do not have an organized approach in place for ambulance diversion, although boarding of admitted patients will still be a major hurdle to effective reduction of ambulance diversion.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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