Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Am J Med. 2006 Mar;119(3):275.e7-14.

Sodium intake and mortality in the NHANES II follow-up study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. hicohen@aecom.yu.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

US Dietary Guidelines recommend a daily sodium intake <2300 mg, but evidence linking sodium intake to mortality outcomes is scant and inconsistent. To assess the association of sodium intake with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality and the potential impact of dietary sodium intake <2300 mg, we examined data from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II).

METHODS:

Observational cohort study linking sodium, estimated by single 24-hour dietary recall and adjusted for calorie intake, in a community sample (n = 7154) representing 78.9 million non-institutionalized US adults (ages 30-74). Hazard ratios (HR) for CVD and all-cause mortality were calculated from multivariable adjusted Cox models accounting for the sampling design.

RESULTS:

Over mean 13.7 (range: 0.5-16.8) years follow-up, there were 1343 deaths (541 CVD). Sodium (adjusted for calories) and sodium/calorie ratio as continuous variables had independent inverse associations with CVD mortality (P = .03 and P = .008, respectively). Adjusted HR of CVD mortality for sodium <2300 mg was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.81, P = .033), and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.10-1.50, P = .003) for all-cause mortality. Alternate sodium thresholds from 1900-2700 mg gave similar results. Results were consistent in the majority of subgroups examined, but no such associations were observed for those <55 years old, non-whites, or the obese.

CONCLUSION:

The inverse association of sodium to CVD mortality seen here raises questions regarding the likelihood of a survival advantage accompanying a lower sodium diet. These findings highlight the need for further study of the relation of dietary sodium to mortality outcomes.

Comment in

PMID:
16490476
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk