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Heart. 2007 Jun;93(6):665-71. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

Non-cardiac comorbidities in chronic heart failure.

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  • 1Department of Cardiology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.


Non-cardiac comorbidity complicates heart failure care and is prevalent in one form or another for the majority of elderly patients with heart failure. This wide range of comorbidities, which includes respiratory comorbidities, renal dysfunction, anaemia, arthritis, cognitive dysfunction and depression, contributes to the progression of the disease and may alter the response to treatment. Polypharmacy is inevitable in these patients. Cardiologists and other physicians caring for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) need to be vigilant to comorbid conditions that may complicate the care of these patients. Future trials should focus on optimal strategies for the comprehensive management of the elderly patients with CHF with multiple comorbidities rather than the isolated effects of single drugs in younger patients with few or no comorbidities.

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