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J Clin Oncol. 2006 Feb 20;24(6):945-52.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw in multiple myeloma patients: clinical features and risk factors.

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  • 1University of Maryland and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. abadros@umm.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features and risk factors for osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

A retrospective review of 90 MM patients who had dental assessments, including 22 patients with ONJ. There were 62 men; the median age was 61 years in ONJ patients and 58 years among the rest. Prior MM therapy included thalidomide (n = 67) and stem-cell transplantation (n = 72). Bisphosphonate therapy included zoledronate (n = 34) or pamidronate (n = 17) and pamidronate followed by zoledronate (n = 33). Twenty-seven patients had recent dental extraction, including 12 patients in the ONJ group. Median time from MM diagnosis to ONJ was 8.4 years for the whole group.

RESULTS:

Patients usually presented with pain. ONJ occurred posterior to the cuspids (n = 20) mostly in the mandible. Debridement and sequestrectomy with primary closure were performed in 14 patients; of these, four patients had major infections and four patients had recurrent ONJ. Bone histology revealed necrosis and osteomyelitis. Microbiology showed actinomycetes (n = 7) and mixed bacteria (n = 9). More than a third of ONJ patients also suffered from long bone fractures (n = 4) and/or avascular necrosis of the hip (n = 4). The variables predictive of developing ONJ were dental extraction (P = .009), treatment with pamidronate/zoledronate (P = .009), longer follow-up time (P = .03), and older age at diagnosis of MM (P = .006).

CONCLUSION:

ONJ appears to be time-dependent with higher risk after long-term use of bisphosphonates in older MM patients often after dental extractions. No satisfactory therapy is currently available. Trials addressing the benefits/risks of continuing bisphosphonate therapy are needed.

PMID:
16484704
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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