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Addict Behav. 2006 Nov;31(11):2127-34. Epub 2006 Feb 13.

Cigarette smoking and interest in quitting in methadone maintenance patients.

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  • 1Division of Substance Abuse, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA. <>



To examine tobacco use, readiness to quit, and interest in smoking cessation interventions among methadone maintenance patients.


Cross-sectional survey of outpatients enrolled in four urban methadone maintenance clinics. Stage of readiness to quit was determined for all smokers, and factors associated with both readiness to quit and interest in attending an on-site smoking cessation program were determined.


Among 389 patients, 83% were current smokers. Nearly half (48%) of smokers were contemplating quitting, and an additional 22% were in the preparation stage of readiness to quit. In multivariate analyses, lower nicotine dependence, prior use of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, and lower methadone dose were associated with being in the preparation stage. Patients with more education, Hispanics/Latinos, and patients who had used smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or were in the preparation or contemplation stages of behavior change were more interested in attending an on-site smoking cessation program.


Tobacco use is highly prevalent among methadone maintenance patients, but we also observed a high level of readiness to quit and interest in smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation interventions, including on-site programs, should be developed for methadone maintenance patients.

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