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J Hum Genet. 2006;51(4):375-8. Epub 2006 Feb 10.

Detection of novel Y SNPs provides further insights into Y chromosomal variation in Pakistan.

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  • 1Biomedical and Genetic Engineering Laboratories, G. P. O Box 2891, 44000, Islamabad, Pakistan.


Biallelic polymorphisms on the Y chromosome have been extensively used to study the history, evolution, and migration patterns of world populations. In this study we screened 8.5 kb of Y chromosomal DNA for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a panel of 95 male individuals belonging to different haplogroups. Five novel Y-SNPs (PK1-5) were identified, four in the Pakistani sample and one in an African sample. The ancestral state of each SNP was determined in two chimpanzee samples and a variety of Pakistani ethnic groups. In addition to these novel Y-SNPs 77 additional markers on the Y chromosome were analyzed to place the SNPs on the phylogenetic tree of Y chromosomal lineages and to further investigate extant human Y chromosomal variation within Pakistan. BATWING analysis gave an estimate of between 2,500 and 7,300 YBP for population expansion in Pakistan which coincides with the period of the Indus Valley civilizations.

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