Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):260-74.

Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression 1.

Author information

  • 1Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0370, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It is unclear whether low-carbohydrate, high-protein, weight-loss diets benefit body mass and composition beyond energy restriction alone.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to use meta-regression to determine the effects of variations in protein and carbohydrate intakes on body mass and composition during energy restriction.

DESIGN:

English-language studies with a dietary intervention of > or =4200 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d), with a duration of > or =4 wk, and conducted in subjects aged > or =19 y were considered eligible for inclusion. A self-reported intake in conjunction with a biological marker of macronutrient intake was required as a minimum level of dietary control. A total of 87 studies comprising 165 intervention groups met the inclusion criteria.

RESULTS:

After control for energy intake, diets consisting of < or =35-41.4% energy from carbohydrate were associated with a 1.74 kg greater loss of body mass, a 0.69 kg greater loss of fat-free mass, a 1.29% greater loss in percentage body fat, and a 2.05 kg greater loss of fat mass than were diets with a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrate. In studies that were conducted for >12 wk, these differences increased to 6.56 kg, 1.74 kg, 3.55%, and 5.57 kg, respectively. Protein intakes of >1.05 g/kg were associated with 0.60 kg additional fat-free mass retention compared with diets with protein intakes < or =1.05 g/kg. In studies conducted for >12 wk, this difference increased to 1.21 kg. No significant effects of protein intake on loss of either body mass or fat mass were observed.

CONCLUSION:

Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets favorably affect body mass and composition independent of energy intake, which in part supports the proposed metabolic advantage of these diets.

PMID:
16469983
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Health
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk