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Appl Ergon. 2006 Nov;37(6):737-42. Epub 2006 Jan 25.

Maximal dynamic grip force and wrist torque: the effects of gender, exertion direction, angular velocity, and wrist angle.

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  • 1Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA.


The objective of this study was to examine the effects of gender, exertion direction, angular velocity and wrist angle on simultaneous grip force and wrist torque under the isokinetic condition. The study used 20 participants (10 males and 10 females) and included 6 angular velocities (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees /s) and 2 wrist exertion directions (flexion and extension) over the wrist range of motion of 70 degrees flexion to 60 degrees extension in 5 degrees increments. Similar to other studies, males and flexion exertion produced larger forces than females and extension exertion, respectively. However, the largest forces were generated at near extreme flexion of the wrist and the dependent variable of angular velocity was not practically significant. These results can contribute to the evaluation of cumulative trauma syndromes, but there is a need for more research on the dynamic measures of the hand and wrist complex and for standard development for dynamic force measurement.

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