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J Org Chem. 2006 Feb 3;71(3):1104-10.

Iron-phosphine, -phosphite, -arsine, and -carbene catalysts for the coupling of primary and secondary alkyl halides with aryl Grignard reagents.

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  • 1School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, U.K.


Simple catalysts formed in situ from iron chloride and a wide range of monodentate and bidentate phosphines and arsines have been screened in the coupling of alkyl halides bearing beta-hydrogens with aryl Grignard reagents. The best of these show excellent activity, as do catalysts formed in situ with monodentate trialkyl and triaryl phosphite ligands. N-heterocyclic carbene-based precatalysts, either preformed or made in situ, also show excellent performance.

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