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J Appl Psychol. 2006 Jan;91(1):97-108.

Empowerment and team effectiveness: an empirical test of an integrated model.

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  • 1Department of Management, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1041, USA.


The authors developed a model of team empowerment as an emergent state linking inputs (I) with processes (P) and, thereby, with outcomes (O) in the context of an expanded team IPO framework. Using survey responses from 452 members of 121 empowered service technician teams, along with archival quantitative performance and customer satisfaction criteria, the authors tested the model using structural equation modeling techniques. The model was generally supported, although areas for improvement were evident. Specifically, empowerment partially mediated the influences of various inputs on team processes, whereas team processes fully mediated the influence of empowerment on outcomes. Directions for future research and application are discussed.

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