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J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 31;281(13):8748-55. Epub 2006 Jan 23.

Pioglitazone ameliorates insulin resistance and diabetes by both adiponectin-dependent and -independent pathways.

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  • 1Department of Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655.

Abstract

Thiazolidinediones have been shown to up-regulate adiponectin expression in white adipose tissue and plasma adiponectin levels, and these up-regulations have been proposed to be a major mechanism of the thiazolidinedione-induced amelioration of insulin resistance linked to obesity. To test this hypothesis, we generated adiponectin knock-out (adipo-/-) ob/ob mice with a C57B/6 background. After 14 days of 10 mg/kg pioglitazone, the insulin resistance and diabetes of ob/ob mice were significantly improved in association with significant up-regulation of serum adiponectin levels. Amelioration of insulin resistance in ob/ob mice was attributed to decreased glucose production and increased AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver but not to increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. In contrast, insulin resistance and diabetes were not improved in adipo-/-ob/ob mice. After 14 days of 30 mg/kg pioglitazone, insulin resistance and diabetes of ob/ob mice were again significantly ameliorated, which was attributed not only to decreased glucose production in the liver but also to increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, adipo-/-ob/ob mice also displayed significant amelioration of insulin resistance and diabetes, which was attributed to increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but not to decreased glucose production in the liver. The serum-free fatty acid and triglyceride levels as well as adipocyte sizes in ob/ob and adipo-/-ob/ob mice were unchanged after 10 mg/kg pioglitazone but were significantly reduced to a similar degree after 30 mg/kg pioglitazone. Moreover, the expressions of TNFalpha and resistin in adipose tissues of ob/ob and adipo-/-ob/ob mice were unchanged after 10 mg/kg pioglitazone but were decreased after 30 mg/kg pioglitazone. Thus, pioglitazone-induced amelioration of insulin resistance and diabetes may occur adiponectin dependently in the liver and adiponectin independently in skeletal muscle.

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