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Am J Health Promot. 2006 Jan-Feb;20(3):183-91.

Hardiness and support at work as predictors of work stress and job satisfaction.

Author information

  • 1University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.



To test a theoretically and empirically based model linking potential protective resources (hardiness, coworker and supervisor support) to the outcomes of work stress and job satisfaction and replicating the relationship of work stress to job satisfaction while accounting for the potential influence of negative affectivity.


A cross-sectional research design using survey data collected from two convenience samples.


Two worksites: (1) a high-tech company and (2) a government agency.


High-tech employees (N = 310; response rate, 73.8%) and government agency employees (N = 745; response rate, 49.7%).


The Dispositional Resilience Scale measured hardiness and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured negative affectivity. Coworker and supervisor support were measured using the Coworker Support Scale and the Supervisor Support Scale, respectively. The Perceived Work Stress Scale measured work stress, and a single item from the Job Satisfaction Scale assessed overall job satisfaction.


A multiple-group path analysis examined the proposed model. Similar patterns of association were found for both samples and suggested a more parsimonious model without the path from negative affectivity to job satisfaction. The model supports the protective nature of hardiness and support at work with regard to work stress and job satisfaction.


Explanations of relationships depicted in the model, practical implications for reducing work stress and enhancing job satisfaction, limitations and future directions are discussed.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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