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J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jan 20;24(3):476-83.

Risk of selected subsequent carcinomas in survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

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  • 1Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/BMT, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To determine the risk of subsequent carcinomas other than breast, thyroid, and skin, and to identify factors that influence the risk among survivors of childhood cancer.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Subsequent malignant neoplasm history was determined in 13,136 participants (surviving > or = 5 years postmalignancy, diagnosed from 1970 to 1986 at age < 21 years) of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data.

RESULTS:

In 71 individuals, 71 carcinomas were diagnosed at a median age of 27 years and a median elapsed time of 15 years in the genitourinary system (35%), head and neck area (32%), gastrointestinal tract (23%), and other sites (10%). Fifty-nine patients (83%) had received radiotherapy, and 42 (59%) developed a second malignant neoplasm in a previous radiotherapy field. Risk was significantly elevated following all childhood diagnoses except CNS neoplasms, and was highest following neuroblastoma (SIR = 24.2) and soft tissue sarcoma (SIR = 6.2). Survivors of neuroblastoma had a 329-fold increased risk of renal cell carcinomas; survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma had a 4.5-fold increased risk of gastrointestinal carcinomas. Significantly elevated risk of head and neck carcinoma occurred in survivors of soft tissue sarcoma (SIR = 22.6), neuroblastoma (SIR = 20.9), and leukemia (SIR = 20.9).

CONCLUSION:

Young survivors of childhood cancers are at increased risk of developing subsequent carcinomas typical of later adulthood, underscoring the importance of long-term follow-up and risk-based screening. Follow-up of the cohort is ongoing to determine lifetime risk and delineate individual characteristics that contribute to risk.

PMID:
16421424
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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