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Gene. 2006 Mar 15;369:53-65. Epub 2006 Jan 10.

The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum histones: organization, expression, and acetylation.

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  • 1Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, 501 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA.


Histones are the building units of nucleosomes and play essential roles in DNA replication, repair and transcription. A comprehensive analysis of histone genes revealed that the Plasmodium falciparum genome encodes a canonical form of each core histone and four histone variants H2A.Z, H3.3, centromere-specific H3 (CenH3), and H2Bv. Mass spectrometry confirmed the synthesis of all histones except CenH3. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting detected a dramatic increase in core histone gene expression during the late trophozoite stages, consistent with their role in replication-related nucleosome assembly. In contrast, the expression of variant histones decreased in mid- or late trophozoite stages. The N-terminal tails of histones participate in transcription regulation through covalent modifications, especially at the lysine residues. In accordance, mass spectrometry analysis revealed acetylation of lysines and methylation of lysines and arginines in the N-termini of H3, H3.3, and H4. Moreover, we identified a new pattern of lysine modifications of the H2A.Z variant. Using a panel of acetylation-specific antibodies, we found that K5, K8, and K12 of H4 were abundantly acetylated at a relatively steady level throughout the erythrocytic cycle. In comparison, the H3-K9 acetylation increased in late trophozoite and schizont stages, while H4-K16 acetylation peaked in mid-trophozoite stage. We have also shown that despite the sequence divergence in the PfH3 N-terminus from their mammalian homologues, the recombinant PfH3 was still efficiently acetylated by both recombinant and native PfGCN5 at K9 and K14. This study suggests that histone replacement and the dynamic histone modifications play important roles in regulating gene expression during erythrocytic development of the malaria parasite.

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