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Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Feb 1;42(3):356-62. Epub 2005 Dec 21.

Low risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome after early effective antimicrobial therapy for Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection in Bangladesh.

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  • 1Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, Mtubatuba, South Africa.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) may complicate up to 15% of cases of Shiga toxin (Stx)-expressing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 infections in children. Administration of antimicrobials has been reported to increase the risk of STEC-associated HUS by >10-fold, presumably by increasing the expression and release of Stx by dying STEC bacteria. Shigella dysenteriae type 1 also expresses Stx. However, the effect of antimicrobial therapy on Stx release and the risk of HUS in humans is unknown.

METHODS:

We measured serial stool Stx concentrations before and after administration of antimicrobials in 20 children infected with S. dysenteriae type 1 who had frank dysentery of <72 h duration. We also reviewed the results of 7 shigellosis drug trials performed in Bangladesh during 1988-2000 to estimate the risk of HUS. In these studies, antimicrobials were administered within 96 h after the onset of dysentery.

RESULTS:

Stx levels decreased in stool samples obtained from 17 of 20 children after administration of antimicrobial agents; none of the 20 children developed HUS. Of 378 individuals infected with S. dysenteriae type 1 who were enrolled in drug trials (128 adult men [age, 18-60 years] and 250 children [age, 6 months to 15 years]), 351 (93%) received an antimicrobial agent to which the S. dysenteriae organism was susceptible <or=96 h after the onset of symptoms; HUS developed in 1 child. The risk of developing HUS was 0.0026 for all participants (95% confidence interval, <0.001 to 0.015) and was 0.004 for children (95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.022).

CONCLUSION:

In persons infected with S. dysenteriae type 1, early administration of effective antibiotics is associated with decreased Stx concentrations in stool and a low risk of developing HUS.

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PMID:
16392080
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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