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Addict Behav. 2006 Sep;31(9):1511-21. Epub 2006 Jan 4.

Measuring nicotine dependence among smokeless tobacco users.

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  • 1University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.


The objective of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the FTQ-ST and the DIS-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence among 68 adult ST users enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial of bupropion SR. FTQ-ST scores were not found to differ between those with and without a current DIS-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence (7.4+/-2.1 vs. 6.8+/-2.8, P=0.325). For all possible FTQ-ST cutoff scores, the observed agreement between the FTQ-ST and the DIS-IV was not found to be different from that expected due to chance. FTQ-ST total scores were positively correlated with serum cotinine (Spearman's r=0.40, P<0.001), amount of tobacco used (r=0.51 and r=0.41 for average dips/chews per day; average tins/pouches per week, respectively, P<0.001), and a reduced likelihood of abstinence at 3 months (OR=0.76, 95% C.I. 0.61-0.96; P=0.019). Participants meeting DIS-IV criteria had lower cotinine concentrations than those without this diagnosis (411+/-263 ng/ml vs. 493+/-246 ng/ml; P=0.042). Poor concordance was observed between the FTQ-ST and the DIS-IV in the assessment of nicotine dependence in ST users.

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