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J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992 Aug;40(8):747-58.

A prospective study of pressure sore risk among institutionalized elderly.

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  • 1Department of Nursing Education, Administration and Science, College of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha 68198-5330.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine if dietary intake, nutritional status, and other physical markers are risk factors for the development of pressure sores in the elderly.

DESIGN:

Cohort study.

SETTING:

250-bed skilled nursing facility with 90 extended care beds in which the average length of stay is 28 days.

PATIENTS:

Two hundred newly admitted residents (70% female, 95% Caucasian) who were over age 65, estimated to stay greater than 10 days, at risk for pressure sore development (Braden Scale score less than or equal to 17) but free of existing pressure sores were studied for 12 weeks or until discharge.

MEASURES:

Skin assessment, Braden Scale score, blood pressure, body temperature, anthropometrics, and dietary intake were studied weekly. CBC, serum albumin, serum total protein, serum iron, iron binding capacity, serum zinc and copper, and serum vitamin C were studied weekly for 4 weeks and biweekly for 8 weeks.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Presence/absence and stage of pressure sores.

MAIN RESULTS:

Stage I pressure sores developed in 70 (35%) and Stage 2 or worse in 77 (38.5%) residents. Subjects who developed pressure sores were older (P less than 0.001) and had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P less than 0.001) and higher body temperature (P less than 0.001) than those without pressure sores. Dietary intake of all nutrients was lower among subjects who developed pressure sores. Using logistic regression, the best predictors or pressure sore development were the Braden Scale score, diastolic blood pressure, temperature, dietary protein intake, and age.

CONCLUSIONS:

Risk assessment is recommended upon admission to a nursing home and weekly for the first month. Risk status can be effectively predicted by using the Braden Scale in combination with knowledge of age, blood pressure, temperature, and dietary protein intake.

PMID:
1634717
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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