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Stroke. 2006 Jan;37(1):193-8. Epub 2005 Dec 8.

Long-term outcome after stroke: evaluating health-related quality of life using utility measurements.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany.



As stroke mortality rates decline, individuals are increasingly likely to live with their residual impairments and disabilities. Therefore, the quality of poststroke life is 1 of the pivotal topics that have to be considered beneath the functional outcome. However, data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been infrequently used in stroke trials. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term outcome (4 years after stroke) of HRQoL and to identify the determinants of HRQoL in stroke survivors.


Seventy-seven patients were included who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Philipps-University Marburg, after experiencing an ischemic stroke, a transient ischemic attack, or a hemorrhagic stroke. All patients were examined by a physician, and assessment was performed using a standardized questionnaire. HRQoL was assessed using the German version of the EuroQoL Index (EQ-5D) and the Health Utility Index 2 and 3 (HUI2/3).


Four years after stroke, besides physical functioning, neuropsychological sequelae such as depression and cognitive impairment contributed to a reduced HRQoL. In addition, the incidence of incontinence proved to be an important factor for HRQoL. Explained variances in regression analysis models were high (R2=0.802 for HUI and 0.633 for EQ-5D--visual analogue scale) and were based on a few important determinants, including physical state, depression, cognitive impairment, and incontinence.


Our results underscore the importance of nonmotor symptoms on HRQoL in patients with stroke.

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