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Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005 Dec;4(4):286-9.

Does smoking affect blood pressure and heart rate?

Author information

  • Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan. alsafi52@yahoo.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular, coronary artery and thromboembolic disorders. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the association of cigarette smoking and the development of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events particularly in high risk populations.

AIM:

The aim of this investigation was to explore the correlation of smoking habit with blood pressure and heart rate values through a randomized cross-sectional epidemiological study in Jordan.

SETTINGS AND DESIGN:

This study was performed during the period of February-June 2004. The sample of this investigation included healthy adult males and females from various regions of Jordan. Most of the selected sample included Jordanian university students. Patients with hypertension or cardiovascular disorders were excluded.

METHODS:

Selected individuals of the sample were interviewed by well-trained senior pharmacy students. They were asked initially if they have hypertension or other cardiovascular disorders and if the answer was negative, further questions were asked followed by measurement of the blood pressure and heart rate. Demographic data such as age, sex, nationality, place of residence, occupation and level of education were also recorded. Smokers (for > or =6 months) were asked to report how many cigarettes per day they smoke. For each individual of the sample, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate were measured three times with 10-15 min intervals in the sitting position and at the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP. The mean values were distributed according to sex and smoking habit.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

The student unpaired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results were considered statistically significant when the p value was less than 0.05.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:

A total of 14,310 adult males (7400) and females (6910) were selected in various regions of Jordan. The frequencies of smokers and non-smokers in the sample were 3832 (26.8%) and 10478 (73.2%), respectively. Smoker males and females had significantly higher SBP, DBP, ABP values than non-smokers. However, smoking had statistically non-significant effects on heart rate in females while heart rate values were significantly higher in male smokers than in non-smokers. Smoker or non-smoker adults with a positive family history of hypertension had significantly higher blood pressure and heart rate values than those with a negative family history of hypertension. In conclusion, smokers have higher blood pressure than non-smokers.

PMID:
16332506
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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