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Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Nov 15;39(22):8891-7.

Aquatic passive sampling of herbicides on naked particle loaded membranes: accelerated measurement and empirical estimation of kinetic parameters.

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  • 1National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, 4108 Queensland, Australia.


Water-sampler equilibrium partitioning coefficients and aqueous boundary layer mass transfer coefficients for atrazine, diuron, hexazionone and fluometuron onto C18 and SDB-RPS Empore disk-based aquatic passive samplers have been determined experimentally under a laminar flow regime (Re = 5400). The method involved accelerating the time to equilibrium of the samplers by exposing them to three water concentrations, decreasing stepwise to 50% and then 25% of the original concentration. Assuming first-order Fickian kinetics across a rate-limiting aqueous boundary layer, both parameters are determined computationally by unconstrained nonlinear optimization. In addition, a method of estimation of mass transfer coefficients--therefore sampling rates--using the dimension-less Sherwood correlation developed for laminar flow over a flat plate is applied. For each of the herbicides, this correlation is validated to within 40% of the experimental data. The study demonstrates that for trace concentrations (sub 0.1 microg/L) and these flow conditions, a naked Empore disk performs well as an integrative sampler over short deployments (up to 7 days) for the range of polar herbicides investigated. The SDB-RPS disk allows a longer integrative period than the C18 disk due to its higher sorbent mass and/or its more polar sorbent chemistry. This work also suggests that for certain passive sampler designs, empirical estimation of sampling rates may be possible using correlations that have been available in the chemical engineering literature for some time.

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