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Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Dec 1;11(23):8391-7.

The use of genetic markers to determine risk for prostate cancer at prostate biopsy.

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  • 1Division of Urology and Department of Pathology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada.



We examined a panel of 13 polymorphisms in 13 different genes to determine whether specific genotypes can help predict prostate cancer at the time of biopsy among men prescreened with prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal exam.


We examined 2,088 consecutive men who were referred for prostate biopsy from 1997 to 2003. Thirteen genes were examined, including TNF308, GSTT1, KLK2, endostatin, MCRA, MCRV, tyrosinase, MSR1, CHK2, RNasel, HOGG1-326, HOGG1-11657, and HRAS1. Odds ratio for detection of prostate cancer were adjusted for age, race, prostate-specific antigen, digital rectal exam, family history of prostate cancer, and urinary symptoms.


Of the 2,088 men, 996 (47.7%) had cancer detected. Four genes (TNF308, GSTT1, KLK2, and HOGG1-326) were significantly associated with prostate cancer. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer for patients with the AA genotype of the TNF308 gene was 1.92 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.0-1.5, P = 0.05], compared with those with the GG genotype, and for patients with the TT genotype of the KLK2 gene, the OR was 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.2, P = 0.04), compared with the CC genotype. The OR for patients with a homozygous deletion of the GSTT1 gene was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.6-1.0, P = 0.06) compared with those with the deletion, and the OR for patients with the GG genotype of the HOGG1-326 gene was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.5-1.0, P = 0.05) compared with the CC genotype. Patients who had all four alleles that were positively associated with prostate cancer had an OR of 9.33 (95% CI, 2.4-35.8, P = 0.0005) for prostate cancer compared with patients with alleles that were negatively associated with prostate cancer.


Of the 13 polymorphisms, two were found to be positively associated with prostate cancer (TNF308 and KLK2) and two were negatively associated with prostate cancer (GSTT1 and HOGG1-326). Future studies are required to confirm these results.

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