Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 27;281(4):2005-11. Epub 2005 Nov 30.

NOD2/CARD15 mediates induction of the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin-2.

Author information

  • 1Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Schittenhelmstrasse 7, 24105 Kiel, Germany.


Production of inducible antimicrobial peptides offers a first and rapid defense response of epithelial cells against invading microbes. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide induced in various epithelia upon extracellular as well as intracellular bacterial challenge. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2/CARD15) is a cytosolic protein involved in intracellular recognition of microbes by sensing peptidoglycan fragments (e.g. muramyl dipeptide). We used luciferase as a reporter gene for a 2.3-kb hBD-2 promoter to test the hypothesis that NOD2 mediates the induction of hBD-2. Activation of NOD2 in NOD2-overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells through its ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP) induced hBD-2 expression. In contrast, overexpression of NOD2 containing the 3020insC frame-shift mutation, the most frequent NOD2 variant associated with Crohn disease, resulted in defective induction of hBD-2 through MDP. Luciferase gene reporter analyses and site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that functional binding sites for NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the hBD-2 promoter are required for NOD2-mediated induction of hBD-2 through MDP. Moreover, the NF-kappaB inhibitor Helenalin as well as a super-repressor form of the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaB strongly inhibited NOD2-mediated hBD-2 promoter activation. Expression of NOD2 was detected in primary keratinocytes, and stimulation of these cells with MDP induced hBD-2 peptide release. In contrast, small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of NOD2 expression in primary keratinocytes resulted in a defective induction of hBD-2 upon MDP treatment. Together, these data suggest that NOD2 serves as an intracellular pattern recognition receptor to enhance host defense by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides such as hBD-2.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk