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Kidney Int. 2005 Dec;68(6):2877-85.

Acute plasma ghrelin and leptin responses to oral feeding or intraperitoneal hypertonic glucose-based dialysate in patients with chronic renal failure.

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  • 1Divisions of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Hormone Research Laboratory, Hospital Juan Canalejo, A Coruña, Spain. mfontan@canalejo.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with increased plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin, but the regulation of the secretion of these hormones has been insufficiently studied, in this setting. The aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of oral feeding or intraperitoneal 3.86% glucose-based dialysate infusion on plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in patients with CRF undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD).

METHODS:

Following a crossover design, 10 patients and eight healthy controls underwent a standardized oral intake, a 3.86% glucose-based dialysate PD exchange (patients) and placebo oral intake. We scrutinized acute changes in plasma ghrelin, leptin, glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (GH) levels.

RESULTS:

In patients, total ghrelin decreased modestly immediately after oral feeding (nadir 90.6% of baseline, range 85.1, 94.5, P= 0.03) or the PD exchange test (92.2%, range 58.7, 101.9, P= 0.05) (median). Response to oral feeding was markedly blunted when compared with healthy individuals (73.8%, range 56.1, 89.1, P= 0.007) (P < 0.005 vs. patients). Plasma acyl-ghrelin had a less marked but more persistent decay after the PD exchange test (nadir 80.4%, range 55.1, 96.3, P= 0.02) than after oral intake (64.4%, range 45.6, 82.3, P= 0.005); again, changes were more intense in normal controls (47.4%, range 32.1, 67.3, P= 0.01) (P < 0.05 vs. patients). Leptin levels decreased slightly (P < 0.05) after the PD exchange in patients, but did not respond acutely to oral feeding in patients or controls.

CONCLUSION:

Ghrelin secretion is partially refractory to the acute inhibitory effect of oral feeding in patients with CRF undergoing PD therapy. A 3.86% glucose-based PD exchange results in a significant decrease of plasma ghrelin levels. Plasma leptin levels are not acutely affected by oral feeding in patients with CRF or healthy individuals.

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