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J Clin Oncol. 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8671-8.

Phase III study of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and levamisole in high-risk stage II and III colon cancer: final report of Intergroup 0089.

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  • 1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. daniel.haller@uphs.upenn.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

In 1990, fluorouracil (FU) plus levamisole for 1 year became standard adjuvant treatment for patients with high-risk stages II and III colon cancer. Intergroup (INT) 0089 assessed the relative contributions of leucovorin and levamisole in such patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

From 1988 to 1992, 3,794 patients were randomly assigned. Experimental treatment consisted of one of three chemotherapy regimens: the low-dose leucovorin plus FU (Mayo Clinic; LDLV) regimen, the high-dose leucovorin plus FU (Roswell Park; HDLV) regimen, and the low-dose leucovorin plus levamisole plus FU (LDLV plus LEV) regimen, each administered for 30 to 32 weeks. The control arm was levamisole plus FU (LEV) for 1 year.

RESULTS:

After a median follow-up of 10 years, of 3,561 eligible patients, 1,691 (47%) have died and 1,330 (37%) have experienced disease recurrence; 137 (10%) of those experiencing recurrence are still alive. A total of 481 patients (13%) died without evidence of recurrence, and 1,723 (48%) are alive and disease free. Although there were toxicity differences among the four arms, none was statistically superior in disease-free or overall survival.

CONCLUSION:

The 6- to 8-month regimens of LDLV and HDLV without levamisole used in this trial, rather than the previous standard regimen of 12 months of LEV, have become widely used. INT-0089 has long-term follow-up of the largest clinical trial of patients with high-risk colon cancer, documenting not only the durability of the treatment effects, but also the natural history of patients with high-risk colon cancer, and analyses of treatment based on age, race, and comorbid conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and second primary cancers.

PMID:
16314627
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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