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Semin Vasc Med. 2005 Nov;5(4):315-20.

Validation, calibration, and specificity of quantitative D-dimer assays.

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  • I Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.


Assays for D-dimer antigen are based on monoclonal antibodies reactive with epitopes found on fibrin fragment D-dimer but not on fibrinogen fragment D, other fibrinogen degradation products, or native fibrinogen. The antibodies react with conformational epitopes generated by factor XIII-induced linkage of the C-terminal appendages of the fibrin gamma-chains of adjacent D-domains within a fibrin polymer. For some monoclonal antibodies, degradation of the cross-linked fibrin compound by plasmin is an additional requirement for the generation of the epitope. In clinical plasma samples, D-dimer antigen assays detect an array of fibrin compounds of different molecular weights, including fibrin fragment D-dimer as well as higher-molecular-weight fibrin degradation products and fibrin X-oligomers. Most D-dimer antigen represents cross-linked soluble fibrin present in circulation rather than degradation products from particulate clots. Due to differences in epitope reactivity, harmonization of D-dimer antigen assays can only be achieved with standard preparations containing a similar variety of cross-linked fibrin compounds. Assay technologies include manual latex agglutination assays, automated latex-enhanced light-scattering immunoassays, enzyme-linked immunoassays, and others.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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