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J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;45(12):1413-21.

Effect of a triphasic oral contraceptive on drug-metabolizing enzyme activity as measured by the validated Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology Research Center, Bassett Healthcare, Cooperstown, New York, USA.


The effects of a common oral contraceptive preparation on the activity of 7 drug-metabolizing enzymes were investigated using the validated Cooperstown 5+1 Cocktail. In a randomized crossover fashion, 10 premenopausal women received caffeine, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, intravenous midazolam, and warfarin + vitamin K with and without a triphasic oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol 35 microg) and varying doses of daily norgestimate (0.18, 0.215, and 0.25 mg). Bioequivalence testing showed nonequivalence in drug versus no-drug treatment on the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes (as reflected by metabolite ratios following probe drug administration); the activity of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and NAT-2 decreased following the oral contraceptive, whereas the activity of CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 increased. No effects on xanthine oxidase or hepatic CYP3A were seen. Application of a non-parametric statistical testing approach revealed a significant difference only for CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. This triphasic oral contraceptive may have a clinically significant effect on the activity of some drug-metabolizing enzymes.

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