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Integr Cancer Ther. 2005 Dec;4(4):301-14.

Multifocal angiostatic therapy: an update.

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  • 1Block Center for Integrative Cancer Care, Evanston, Illinois 60201, USA.


Multifocal angiostatic therapy (MAT) is a strategy that seeks to impede cancer-induced angiogenesis by addressing multiple targets that regulate the angiogenic capacity of a cancer and/or the angiogenic responsiveness of endothelial cells, using measures that are preferentially, but not exclusively, nutraceutical. A prototype of such a regimen has been proposed previously, composed of green tea polyphenols, fish oil, selenium, and high-dose glycine, complementing a low-fat vegan diet, exercise training, and the copper-sequestering drug tetrathiomolybdate (TM). A review of more recent evidence suggests additional agents that could appropriately be included in this regimen and clarifies to some extent the mechanisms of action of its constituents. Diindolylmethane, a widely available crucifera-derived nutraceutical, has inhibited cancer growth in several mouse xenograft models; this effect may be largely attributable to an angiostatic action, as concentrations as low as 5 to 10 muM inhibit proliferation, migration, and tube-forming capacity of human endothelial cells in vitro, and a parenteral dose of 5 mg/kg markedly impairs matrigel angiogenesis in mice. Silymarin/silbinin, which has slowed the growth of human xenografts in a number of studies, suppresses the proliferation, migration, and tube-forming capacity of endothelial cells and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by a range of human cancer cell lines, in concentrations that should be clinically feasible. The angiostatic activity of orally administered green tea now appears likely to reflect inhibition of the kinase activity of VEGFR-2. Glycine's angiostatic activity may be attributable to a hyperpolarizing effect on endothelial cells that decreases the activity of NADPH oxidase, now known to promote tyrosine kinase signaling in endothelial cells. The ability of TM to suppress cancer cell production of a range of angiogenic factors results at least in part from a down regulation of NF-kappaB activation. Dual-purpose molecular targets, whose inhibition could be expected to decrease the aggressiveness and chemoresistance of cancer cells while simultaneously impeding angiogenesis, include NF-kappaB, cox-2, c-Src, Stat3, and hsp90; drugs that can address these targets are now in development, and salicylates are notable for the fact that they can simultaneously inhibit NF-kappaB and cox-2. The potential complementary of the components of MAT should be assessed in nude mouse xenograft models.

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