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Thorac Surg Clin. 2005 Nov;15(4):543-54.

Ethical issues in surgical research.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Bioethics, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1156, USA.


Higher standards of evidence for surgical procedures are likely to be demanded in the future by health insurance providers. Consequently, more formal and rigorous surgical research, including RCTs, will become more prevalent. Facing the ethical challenges of surgical research requires understanding of the ethically significant differences between surgical practice and research and the ways in which the ethical standards appropriate for the design and conduct of clinical research differ from the ethics of clinical care.

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