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Res Q Exerc Sport. 2005 Sep;76(3):306-14.

Deliberate imagery practice: the reliability of using a retrospective recall methodology.

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  • 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, England, UK.


This study examined the reliability of a retrospective recall methodology for providing evidence of deliberate imagery practice. A secondary purpose was to determine which imagery activities constituted the sport-specific definition of deliberate practice (Starkes, Deakin, Allard, Hodges, & Hayes, 1996). Ninety-three Canadian athletes from one of three different competitive levels (regional, provincial, and national) completed the Deliberate Imagery Practice Recall Questionnaire, which was specifically designed for the present study. The athletes also completed a 1-week imagery diary to assess their use of 14 different imagery activities. The results of the study indicated that the athletes were able to reliably estimate their use of imagery over a short recall interval. Four imagery activities were also determined to fulfill the sport specific definition of deliberate practice.

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