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J Exp Bot. 2005 Dec;56(422):3137-47. Epub 2005 Nov 1.

A novel gene family in Arabidopsis encoding putative heptahelical transmembrane proteins homologous to human adiponectin receptors and progestin receptors.

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  • 1Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan. ming@gate.sinica.edu.tw


A novel seven-transmembrane receptor family, that is comprised of human adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) and membrane progestin receptors (mPRs) that share little sequence homology with all known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been identified recently. Although a fish mPR has been suggested to be a GPCR, human AdipoRs seem to be structurally and functionally distinct from all known GPCRs. The identification of a novel gene family, the heptahelical protein (HHP) gene family, encoding proteins in Arabidopsis predicted to have a heptahelical transmembrane topology is reported here. There are at least five HHP genes in Arabidopsis whose encoded amino acid sequences have significant similarities to human AdipoRs and mPRs. The expression and regulation of the Arabidopsis HHP gene family has been studied here. The expression of the HHP gene family is differentially regulated by plant hormones. Steady-state levels of HHP1 mRNA are increased by treatments with abscisic acid and gibberellic acid, whereas levels of HHP2 mRNA are increased by abscisic acid and benzyladenine treatments. In addition, the expression of the HHP gene family is up-regulated by the presence of sucrose in the medium. Temperature and salt stress treatments also differentially affect the expression of the HHP genes. These novel seven-transmembrane proteins previously described in yeast and animals, and now identified in plants, may represent a new class of receptors that are highly conserved across kingdoms.

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