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BMC Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 27;5:93.

Clinical presentation and prognostic factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis according to the focus of infection.

Author information

  • 1National Center for Antimicrobials and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, Copenhagen S, Denmark. coa@ssi.dk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We conducted a nationwide study in Denmark to identify clinical features and prognostic factors in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae according to the focus of infection.

METHODS:

Based on a nationwide registration, clinical information's was prospectively collected from all reported cases of pneumococcal meningitis during a 2-year period (1999-2000). Clinical and laboratory findings at admission, clinical course and outcome of the disease including follow-up audiological examinations were collected retrospectively. The focus of infection was determined according to the clinical diagnosis made by the physicians and after review of the medical records.

RESULTS:

187 consecutive cases with S. pneumoniae meningitis were included in the study. The most common focus was ear (30%), followed by lung (18%), sinus (8%), and other (2%). In 42% of cases a primary infection focus could not be determined. On admission, fever and an altered mental status were the most frequent findings (in 93% and 94% of cases, respectively), whereas back rigidity, headache and convulsion were found in 57%, 41% and 11% of cases, respectively. 21% of patients died during hospitalisation (adults: 27% vs. children: 2%, Fisher Exact Test, P < 0.001), and the causes of death were due to neurological- and systemic complications or the combination of both in 8%, 5% and 6% of cases, respectively. Other causes (e.g. gastrointestinal bleeding, incurable cancer) accounted for 2% of cases. 41% of survivors had neurological sequelae (hearing loss: 24%, focal neurological deficits: 16%, and the combination of both: 1%). The mortality varied with the focus of the infection (otogenic: 7%, sinusitic: 33%, pneumonic: 26%, other kind of focus: 50%, no primary infection focus: 21%, Log rank test: P = 0.0005). Prognostic factors associated with fatal outcome in univariate logistic regression analysis were advanced age, presence of an underlying disease, history of headache, presence of a lung focus, absence of an otogenic focus, having a CT-scan prior to lumbar puncture, convulsions, requirement of assisted ventilation, and alterations in various CSF parameters (WBC < 500 cells/microL, high protein levels, glucose levels < 1 mmol/L, low CSF/blood glucose levels), P < 0.05. Independent prognostic factor associated with fatal outcome in multivariate logistic regression analysis was convulsions (OR: 4.53, 95%CI: (1.74-11.8), p = 0.002), whereas presence of an otogenic focus was independently associated with a better survival (OR: 6.09, 95%CI: (1.75-21.2), P = 0.005).

CONCLUSION:

These results emphasize the prognostic importance of an early recognition of a predisposing focus to pneumococcal meningitis.

PMID:
16253143
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1295586
Free PMC Article
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