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Rev Neurol (Paris). 2005 Sep;161(8-9):795-803.

[Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a self-administered assessment questionnaire].

[Article in French]

Author information

  • 1Fédération de Neurologie, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

An association of patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome enabled us to gather a large body of information regarding the disease manifestations, and patient-perceived consequences.

METHOD:

350 questionnaires were sent to patients belonging to the AFSGT (French Association of Patients Suffering from Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome). 187 responses were received (53 percent). The patients were divided into four groups: those with motor tics, vocal tics, complex tics and complex tics with coprolalia. This last group corresponds to the DSM IV definition of "Tourette Disorder". The questions were grouped in five sections: simple manifestations, complex manifestations, family study, treatment and psycho-affective perception (social and in the context of schooling).

RESULTS:

The study of the simple manifestations of the disorder revealed the homogeneity of the four groups with an age of onset at on average 7 years and a male-to-female ratio of 3.5. The first signs of the disorder are motor tics of the face and neck, and the disorder shows a variable and fluctuating course characterized by periods of decreased or absent symptoms. Familial cases (58 percent) are found in all four groups. The complex signs included in part of behaviors corresponding to the definition of tics: sudden, brusque, repetitive, varied, escape despite efforts to repress them and reappearance more intensely after a period of conscious control. The complex signs also consisted of accompanying factors such as agitation, need to organize, classify or count. Treatments have been of limited success and a significant number of patients have abandoned treatment entirely. Our study demonstrates that this condition seriously affects the daily life of patients, including family and social relations, schooling and occupational life. No patients suffering from transient tics responded to our survey, but such tics were reported in family members.

CONCLUSION:

Overall, the condition is considered to be single family of disorders, despite the broad phenotypic spectrum, from transitory cases by children to very severe forms. Escape despite efforts to repress tics and the rebound after control tics is characteristic of the Georges Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

PMID:
16244561
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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