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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 1;102(44):15942-7. Epub 2005 Oct 21.

Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic distance in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. sohini@stanford.edu

Abstract

Equilibrium models of isolation by distance predict an increase in genetic differentiation with geographic distance. Here we find a linear relationship between genetic and geographic distance in a worldwide sample of human populations, with major deviations from the fitted line explicable by admixture or extreme isolation. A close relationship is shown to exist between the correlation of geographic distance and genetic differentiation (as measured by F(ST)) and the geographic pattern of heterozygosity across populations. Considering a worldwide set of geographic locations as possible sources of the human expansion, we find that heterozygosities in the globally distributed populations of the data set are best explained by an expansion originating in Africa and that no geographic origin outside of Africa accounts as well for the observed patterns of genetic diversity. Although the relationship between F(ST) and geographic distance has been interpreted in the past as the result of an equilibrium model of drift and dispersal, simulation shows that the geographic pattern of heterozygosities in this data set is consistent with a model of a serial founder effect starting at a single origin. Given this serial-founder scenario, the relationship between genetic and geographic distance allows us to derive bounds for the effects of drift and natural selection on human genetic variation.

PMID:
16243969
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1276087
Free PMC Article
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