Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct;57(4):706-18; discussion 706-18.

Stereoelectroencephalography in the presurgical evaluation of focal epilepsy: a retrospective analysis of 215 procedures.

Author information

  • 1Claudio Munari Center for Epilepsy Surgery, Ospedale Niguarda-Ca' Granda, Milan, Italy.



To report on indications, surgical technique, results, and morbidity of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) in the presurgical evaluation of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy.


Two-hundred fifteen stereotactic implantations of multilead intracerebral electrodes were performed in 211 patients (4 patients were explored twice), who showed variable patterns of localizing incoherence among electrical (interictal/ictal scalp electroencephalography), clinical (ictal semeiology), and anatomic (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) investigations. MRI scanning showed a lesion in 134 patients (63%; associated with mesial temporal sclerosis in 7) and no lesion in 77 patients (37%; with mesial temporal sclerosis in 14 patients). A total of 2666 electrodes (mean, 12.4 per patient) were implanted (unilaterally in 175 procedures and bilaterally in 40). For electrode targeting, stereotactic stereoscopic cerebral angiograms were used in all patients, coupled with a coregistered three-dimensional MRI scan in 108 patients.


One hundred eighty-three patients (87%) were scheduled for resective surgery after SEEG recording, and 174 have undergone surgery thus far. Resections sites were temporal in 47 patients (27%), frontal in 55 patients (31.6%), parietal in 14 patients (8%), occipital in one patient (0.6%), rolandic in one patient (0.6%), and multilobar in 56 patients (32.2%). Outcome on seizures (Engel's classification) in 165 patients with a follow-up period of more than 12 months was: Class I, 56.4%; Class II, 15.1%; Class III, 10.9%; and Class IV, 17.6%. Outcome was significantly associated with the results of MRI scanning (P = 0.0001) and with completeness of lesion removal (P = 0.038). Morbidity related to electrode implantation occurred in 12 procedures (5.6%), with severe permanent deficits from intracerebral hemorrhage in 2 (1%) patients.


SEEG is a useful and relatively safe tool in the evaluation of surgical candidates when noninvasive investigations fail to localize the epileptogenic zone. SEEG-based resective surgery may provide excellent results in particularly complex drug-resistant epilepsies.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk