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Internist (Berl). 2005 Dec;46(12):1373-85, quiz 1386-7.

[Cardiomyopathies II. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy].

[Article in German]

Author information

  • 1Medizinische Klinik II, Kardiologie und Pneumologie, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin. heinz-peter.schultheiss@charite.de

Abstract

This review focuses on hypertrophic (HCM), restrictive (RCM) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies (ARVC). The clinical phenotype of HCM depends not only on the gene mutations involved, but also on "modifier genes". It is characterized by an asymmetrical hypertrophy. Investigations of endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) typically reveal a disarray of the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Percutaneous septum ablation has gained relevance as the treatment of choice in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Myocardial and endomyocardial RCM-forms can be differentiated. Enlargement of the atria in concert with normal dimensions of the ventricles and almost normal systolic contractility as well as the dip-plateau phenomenon are characteristic findings in RCM. EMB diagnostics are pivotal to identify the causes underlying secondary RCM types. Treatment is directed at heart failure and specifically at the underlying disease. With ARVC, apoptosis, viral infection/inflammation and genetic dystrophy result in fibrofatty degeneration primarily of the right, and with further progression also of the left ventricle. The primary treatment goal in ARVC is prevention of sudden cardiac death. As for other cardiomyopathies, there is increasing evidence for the superiority of ICD compared with pharmacological approaches.

PMID:
16237514
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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