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[Cardiovascular malformations in Turner syndrome].

[Article in Polish]

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  • 1Klinika Pediatrii, Hematologii, Onkologii i Endokrynologii AM w Gdańsku.



A literature review indicates that the prevalence of cardiovascular malformations in patients with Turner syndrome ranges from 17 to 47 percent.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiovascular system in patients with Turner syndrome, controlled by the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of the Medical University of Gdansk.


The study included 55 females with Turner syndrome aged 3-20 years (mean age 9.6 years). The procedure included an interview, subject examination, chest X-rays and echocardiography. The echocardiography included M-mode measurements, two-dimensional evaluations from all standard planes, pulsed and continuous wave Doppler as well as color flow mapping. In selected cases, cardiologic examination embraced also cardiac catheterization, cineangiography and continuous 24-hour blood pressure measurement.


Cardiovascular malformations were found in 18 out of 55 females (32.7%). Aortic coarctation was detected in 9 out of 18 patients (50%), bicuspid aortic valve in 33%, and aortic insufficiency in 22% of them. 78% of Turner subjects with cardiovascular malformations had monosomy (45,X). All females, except one, with aortic coarctation, had a 45,X karyotype. One aortic coarctation was diagnosed during prenatal examination. Before the last medical examination, 9 females had undergone a surgical treatment. In one case, the surgical treatment was preceded by a balloon angioplasty. Due to a recoarctation, one female was submitted to an additional balloon angioplasty. One female died during the post surgical period suffering from aortic wall injury. In four cases, despite successful surgeries, there still remains an arterial hypertension requiring pharmacological treatment. In 4 out of 18 cases (22%) isolated aortic valves defects were diagnosed, however, at present time they do not require any surgical treatment. In three cases, echocardiographic examination indicated a persistent left superior vena cava and aneurysm atrial septal defect with an intact septum.


Due to a high prevalence of cardiovascular malformations, girls with Turner syndrome should be monitored by a pediatric cardiologist. In each case, female with Turner syndrome should be submitted to echocardiography. Also a careful control of the blood pressure is indicated.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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